Tofade T, Abate M. Perceptions of a continuing professional development portfolio model to enhance the scholarship of teaching and learning. J Pharm Pract. 2014;27(2):131-137.
For attendees of the 2011 AACP’s Teacher’s seminar, a CPD portfolio guide to raising a faculty’s scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) was given out prior to the start of the conference. A live workshop was conducted, outlining the basics of the portfolio process, providing the registrants an opportunity to develop their own plan for advancement, and peer and facilitator feedback on ways to implement their plan. Following completion of this workshop, a hard copy survey was distributed to assess the participants’ thoughts on the usefulness of the CPD model for heightening their teaching and learning scholarship. 86.8% of the respondents stated the portfolio program would be useful for their personal development in teaching/learning and 77.4% said it would increase SoTL efforts by faculty.
Tofade T, Kim J, Lebovitz L, et al. Introduction of a continuing professional development tool for preceptors. J Pharm Pract. 2015;28(2):212-9.
Preceptors from seven pharmacy schools underwent CPD training to gain a better understanding of the process and how to implement it for their future students on rotation with them. Prerecorded ACPE podcasts formed the basis of the web-based training. 42 preceptors completed at least 1 of the 3 educational tutorials. A post training survey was performed six months after the start of this initiative to identify the participants’ perception of its usefulness for students’ and their own lifelong learning approach. Over 90% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that the “CPD model training, as learned in the webcasts, is beneficial for ongoing preceptor development.”
Janke K, Tofade T. Making a curricular commitment to continuing professional development in Doctor of Pharmacy programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(8):1-8. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678737/pdf/ajpe798112.pdf
This statement describes the various skills involved in CPD and associated behaviors in order to help incorporate such experiences in the pharmacy curriculum. There are also several recommendations to take into consideration when designing key experiences that promote the CPD process (e.g., review milestone examination results and take action accordingly; coach students by starting with their career goals; recognize the role of mindset).
Schneider J, O’Hara K, Munro I. Using continuing professional development with portfolio in a pharmaceutics course. Pharmacy. 2016;4(4):36.
Students were introduced to the CPD model and stepwise approach in a flipped classroom format in pharmaceutics 3, a course offered over 12 weeks at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Using this knowledge gained, students assumed the role of a pharmacist in four simulated cases. Students started out by reflecting on what they knew and didn’t know about the subject matter. They then made a plan to find the information necessary to answer the clinical question and then actually formulated a response to the case. Students were allowed to collaborate with their classmates while formulating responses to the cases. Students were asked to document their approach to each step of the process in the portfolio. 36 students submitted a complete portfolio. A student survey was conducted upon completion of the activity. The results demonstrated that a majority of the participants found this activity to be an effective means of promoting self-learning, but also revealed the need for clarification when explaining the “reflection” and “evaluation” steps of the process.
Knoer S, Carroll D, Lucas A. Using ASHP fellowship criteria as a template for continuous professional development. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73:1777-9.
The pharmacy executives at the Cleveland Clinic utilized FASHP criteria as the foundation to a CPD initiative to foster employee engagement and further pharmacy practice. 12 individuals were involved in this initiative. A peer consultant was invited to help identify each individual pharmacist’s potential deficits in professional development and formulate action plans to tackle these areas for growth. The pharmacists were asked to update and forward their CV to the consultant, urging them to assess and reflect on their own progress in comparison to the FASHP requirements. Following an active review of the CV, the pharmacists and consultant together came up with an action plan to advance their professional development. In the post activity survey, participants agreed or strongly agreed that it was a positive learning experience and motivated them to raise their involvement in professional activities.
Shlom EA. President’s message: life-long learning in pharmacy: from CE to CPD. J Pharm Pract. Dec 2014;27(6):591-2.
In this article, the President of the New York State Council of Health-System Pharmacists (NYSCHP) identifies current pharmacist and pharmacy technician CE practices within the state of New York, including minimum CE hour requirements and a growing emphasis on interdisciplinary learning. The author then discusses the future of CE and what it might entail. CPD is defined, the four-step CPD model is identified, and CPD learning techniques are discussed. The author concludes by asking NYSCHP members to educate themselves further on CPD practices.
International Pharmaceutical Federation – FIP (2014). Continuing professional development/continuing education in pharmacy: global report. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Pharmaceutical Federation. Available: http://workshop.fluidbook.com/viewer/12813_cf5840deae52ed81921c1cc5cc3f872a_1430144585/
This article summarizes the findings of a global CPD survey conducted by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). The survey asked countries to identify their current CPD practices, including the current drivers at the national or regional level, the status of implementation, challenges faced, lessons learned, tools used, future plans, and national or regional strategies for health care delivery. Survey results are summarized and nine in-depth country case studies are presented for Australia, Canada, Croatia, Japan, Namibia, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Oman, and United States of America.
McConnell KJ, Delate T, Newlon CL. The sustainability of improvements from continuing professional development in pharmacy practice and learning behaviors. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(3):36. Available: http://www.ajpe.org/doi/pdf/10.5688/ajpe79336
Using a 3-year posttrial online survey, this study evaluates the long-term sustainability of CPD practices among pharmacists who participated in an unblinded randomized controlled CPD trial. 79% of original study participants completed the survey. To a greater degree than the control group, pharmacists from the original CPD intervention group reported confidence in the perception of their ability to identify learning needs and utilization of CPD concepts (e.g., reflect, plan); however, there was decay in utilization over time. No significant differences between groups were found related to perceptions of pharmacy practice (e.g., applying learning to work, commitment to change, performance). The authors propose that pharmacists may need external motivation to routinely utilize CPD concepts.
Tofade T, Duggan C, Rouse M, Anderson C. The responsibility of advancing continuing professional development and continuing education globally. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(2):16. Available: http://www.ajpe.org/doi/pdf/10.5688/ajpe79216
This editorial examines the roles and responsibilities of accrediting bodies, professional associations, educators, and healthcare professionals in advancing CPD. The authors reference FIP’s global CPD report and praise its recommendation for a four-step CPD process: reflect, plan, act, and evaluate. Moreover, the authors stress the importance of detailed documentation throughout the CPD process. The article showcases the CPD work being completed at the University of Nottingham as an example of an academic institution that has implemented a comprehensive CPD component to its curriculum.
Hobson EH, Johnston PE, Spinelli AJ. Staging a reflective capstone course to transition PharmD graduates to professional life. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(1):14. Available: http://www.ajpe.org/doi/pdf/10.5688/ajpe79114
This study looks at the implementation of a one credit-hour reflective capstone course for fourth-year student pharmacists at Belmont University. Between 2013 and 2014, 139 students completed the course, which consisted of 14 weeks of online coursework and 2 weeks of in-person coursework. Four projects were completed: professional portfolio, educational outcomes self-assessment, CPD plan, and a significant learning event presentation. All projects were evaluated using standardized rubrics. Results showed most challenges came in creating CPD plans where students had difficulty in identifying professional needs and emerging opportunities.